Full-Time Faculty Development
The content of this chapter is applicable to only full-time faculty.
Chapter IV. FULL-TIME Faculty Development
4.1 Course Release for Tenured Faculty
4.2. Distinguished Professor Guidelines for Release Time
4.3 Employee Expense Reimbursement
4.4. International Programs Teaching Assignments
4.5. Professional Travel
4.6. Publicizing of Faculty Publications
4.7. Research & Scholarly Activities
4.7.2. Faculty Research Policies
18.104.22.168. Protection of Human Participants in Research
22.214.171.124.1. Institutional Review Board (IRB)
126.96.36.199.2. University Privacy Practices
188.8.131.52.3. HIPAA Policies and Procedures
184.108.40.206. Animal Subject Research
220.127.116.11. Allegations Regarding Research Misconduct
18.104.22.168. Patents and Copyrights
4.7.3. Internal Resources
4.7.4. External Funding for Research
22.214.171.124. Corporate and Foundation Relations
126.96.36.199. Research and Sponsored Programs
4.8. Sabbatical Leave
4.1. COURSE RELEASE FOR TENURED FACULTY MEMBERS
( Included since 2010, updated 2014, updated 2017)
A. Eligible Candidates
• Any tenured Seaver faculty member currently teaching a 3/3 load (or its equivalent) is eligible to apply for a one course release. (Faculty members who have been granted a sabbatical for the concurrent academic year are ineligible.)
• Tenured Seaver faculty members currently holding a distinguished professor position or an endowed chair position are automatically granted a one course release. No application is necessary while the faculty member holds the above designation. (This involves approximately ten individuals).
B. Application Process and Timeline
• The eligible faculty member will submit a one- or two-page document (no more than two pages) outlining the project that will be undertaken if a 3/2 teaching load is granted; the project document must include expected outcomes of the project. The candidate will also provide a curriculum vitae with the project proposal.
• The types (not exhaustive) of projects envisioned are:
o Scholarly activity – a paper presentation at a professional conference, student related research, published article or book, exhibition, performance, or grant proposal.
o New course / program development – development of a new course not currently in the Seaver catalogue (developed in conjunction with the need of GE, the major, or division) or development of a new pedagogy that would result in a presentation or publication.
o Assessment-related activities – leadership or extensive role in a five-year review, general education review, or projects that advance assessment and program review at Seaver College.
• The criteria used to evaluate projects will largely mirror the criteria used for the evaluation of sabbatical proposals and current Seaver research grants: merit and significance of the proposal, likelihood of completion, benefit to the division and/or the college, current contributions of the faculty member to the division and the college.
• In subsequent rounds successful recipients will also provide a brief statement documenting the outcomes of previous course reduction awards.
• Application Timeline
o Eligible applicants seeking a course release will submit a proposal and curriculum vitae to their division chairs by the last Tuesday in October. Divisional deans will review and forward applications to the Seaver Dean's office by Friday, November 1.
o The Awards Committee will review materials and determine recipients in December.
C. Awards Committee
• The committee awarding the one course release will be comprised of the Seaver Dean, Seaver Associate Deans, and Divisional Deans.
• Course releases will be awarded on an annual basis because they are funded with non-base dollars.
• Whether the two-course load is taken in the fall or spring semester will be determined by divisional needs.
E. Course Reduction Policy for Seaver Visiting Faculty with Overseas Appointments
- Faculty who receive an overseas appointment in one of our seven programs will be given a one course-load release in either the fall semester prior to their year overseas or one semester after they return from their overseas appointment.
The following conditions apply:
1) This course reduction only applies to faculty who have year-long overseas appointments.
2) This course reduction is only granted to full-time faculty.
3) If faculty member chooses to take the course reduction prior to the year overseas, it must be taken in the Fall semester. If the faculty member chooses to take the course reduction after the year overseas, the Division Dean will determine whether it can be taken in the Fall or Spring semester.
4.2. DISTINGUISHED PROFESSOR GUIDELINES FOR RELEASE TIME
(Included since 2002; modified 2010, updated 2017)
1. Distinguished professors automatically receive a 3/2 teaching load.
2. No distinguished professor may receive less than a 2/2 teaching load.
3. Distinguished professors may, at their option, request that in place of a portion of their annual stipend they be released from teaching one class in order to have time to pursue an academic project.
4. The academic projects which would be eligible for support fall into four categories:
a. Original research projects that will lead to publications, or, in the case of faculty members in the visual or performing arts, projects that will lead to major exhibitions or performances.
b. Planning and sponsoring a conference of academic significance either for the Pepperdine community or academia beyond Pepperdine.
c. Preparing and giving a major, public lecture that will be of interest to the broad Pepperdine community.
d. Preparing a proposal for a major grant that will bring both financial resources and academic recognition to Pepperdine.
5. Distinguished professors must apply to the divisional dean by January 1 for the following fall semester and by September 1 for the following spring semester. The released time request will be granted if approved both by the applicant’s divisional dean and the Dean of Seaver College.
6. Distinguished professors who are granted released time must report back by way of a lecture, performance, or exhibition to which all Seaver faculty members and, as appropriate, others in the broader Pepperdine community will be invited.
7. There shall be no limit on the number of times distinguished professors may apply for and receive additional released time (up to one per year).
4.3. EMPLOYEE EXPENSE REIMBURSEMENT
(Included since 1988; Modified 2007; Modified 2012)
Faculty and staff shall be reimbursed for reasonable travel and entertainment expenses incurred on authorized university business. The policy governing expense reimbursements is the Travel and Entertainment Policy found in Section 14 of the University Financial Policies at http://community.pepperdine.edu/finance/policies.htm#Section14.
4.4. INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMS TEACHING ASSIGNMENTS
(Included since 1991)
Full-time faculty members are eligible to apply to teach in the University's overseas programs. Year-round residential programs (academic year plus summer) are currently operated in Buenos Aires, Florence, Heidelberg, Lausanne, London, Shanghai, and Washington DC, and summer-only programs are operated in many other locations. Both academic-year and summer appointments are offered. Detailed information and application forms may be obtained from the Office of the Dean of International Programs (x4532). Faculty members who have not yet earned tenure should consider the possible impact of an overseas assignment on their development as scholars before applying. All faculty members should speak with their divisional dean before applying for an appointment.
4.5. PROFESSIONAL TRAVEL
(Included since 1978; modified 1988, 1991, 2006, 2010, 2012, 2014, updated 2017)
Faculty travel to professional meetings and seminars, as well as for research purposes and other activities, is strongly encouraged, particularly when papers are to be read. The guidelines below have been set by the divisional deans. These guidelines are designed to maximize the limited funds available for travel. They are based on a concept of divisional allocation, i.e., each academic division maintains a designated travel pool which will be distributed by the divisional dean on the basis of these guidelines. The guidelines establish maximums. Divisional deans may find it necessary to award amounts less than the maximum allowed. Requests for reimbursement must be submitted within 30 days of return from a conference, with original receipts. All faculty travel is subject to Pepperdine’s employee expense reimbursement policy and procedures, which may be found in Section 4.3 of this chapter or in Section 14 of the University Financial Policies at http://community.pepperdine.edu/finance/policies.htm#Section14.
2. ALLOCATION PARAMETERS
a. Any full-time faculty member delivering a major scholarly paper at a significant professional meeting may receive reimbursement of expenses for lodging, meals and local transportation for four days up to 100 percent of federal government regulations Per Diem Rates (see www.gsa.gov, click on Per Diem Rates), payment of registration fees up to $180 (assuming meals and special events are not included), and an amount equal to the least expensive round-trip air ticket available to the meeting site ("super saver" fare, unless no such fare is possible; up to $720; and if going by car, mileage reimbursement cannot exceed cheapest air fare) for travel and transfers.
b. Any full-time faculty member serving as a major officer of a national scholarly
association or as president of a regional scholarly association will receive the same
travel benefit as stipulated above.
c. Full-time faculty members:
i. attending conferences specifically designed to improve teaching skills;
ii. attending conferences designed to bring the instructor up to date in areas which he or she directly teaches;
iii. wishing to use libraries, consult with resource persons, visit museums, or attend conferences specifically related to a research project which the instructor has in progress; may receive 80 percent of federal government regulations Per Diem rates for expenses (lodging, meals, and local transportation) for four days (see website referenced above), 100 percent of the first $125 travel expenses (not to exceed the lowest air fare available), and not more than 75 percent of the next $400 travel expenses and transfers; registration fees up to $125 will be paid.
Requests for these funds should be made at least 30 days prior to the meeting and be accompanied by a description of the program (preferably the official brochure) and a statement specifically showing its value to the faculty member. Should available funds not cover all requests, preference will be given to the faculty member eligible under paragraphs a and b above.
4. ADMINISTRATIVELY ASSIGNED TRAVEL
If a faculty member is requested in writing by the dean or another senior administrator of Pepperdine University to attend any meeting as an official representative of the University, he or she will receive remuneration for all reasonable expenses incurred, according to the usual guidelines covering administrative travel. These expenses should be itemized and all receipts submitted for reimbursement. Per diem does not apply.
Any exception to these guidelines must be authorized by the dean.
4.6. PUBLICIZING OF FACULTY PUBLICATIONS
(Included since 1988)
Seaver College encourages its faculty members to prepare and publish scholarly contributions
to the professional literature in the fields consistent with and related to their
individual interests and expertise.
Such scholarly publications are recognized and publicized in various University publications. The Public Information Office maintains liaison with local and metropolitan newspapers, radio stations, and television outlets.
4.7. RESEARCH AND SCHOLARLY ACTIVITIES
(Included since 1988; modified 1998; updated 2006)
Seaver College encourages research and scholarly activities of the highest possible quality across the academic disciplines. Faculty members are evaluated in part (25%) by the Rank, Tenure, and Promotion Committee on their ability to demonstrate creative and productive work through published research and other scholarly activities (refer to the Rank, Tenure, and Promotion Handbook).
4.7.2. FACULTY RESEARCH POLICIES
(Approved by the University Academic Council, March 19, 2004; effective August 12, 2004)
Faculty members shall perform all research or research related activities in accordance with federal and state law, University and School policies, and ethics codes that apply to the researcher or to the person’s research. The University has adopted policies that specifically govern faculty research, including, for example, research involving human or animal subjects and research funded by certain governmental agencies. Pepperdine faculty members and researchers are subject to the research policies, are responsible for knowing the provisions of the policies, and are responsible for ensuring that they comply with the policies and that others working with or for them, including students, comply with the policies.
188.8.131.52. PROTECTION OF HUMAN PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH
184.108.40.206.1. INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD (IRB)
(Modified 2012, 2019)
a. It is the policy of Pepperdine University that all research involving human participants must be conducted in accordance with accepted ethical, federal, and professional standards for research and that all such research must be approved by one of the University's Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). These boards are charged with monitoring the ethical propriety of all research involving human participants/subjects conducted under the auspices of Pepperdine University. It is the policy of Pepperdine University that its IRBs have the authority to approve, require modifications in, or disapprove any research involving human participants/subjects conducted under Pepperdine's auspices.
b. In the review and conduct of research, Pepperdine University is guided by the ethical principles set forth in the Belmont Report (i.e., respect for persons, beneficence, and justice). In addition, all human subjects research conducted by or under the auspices of Pepperdine University will be performed in accordance with the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) (CFR), Title 45 Part 46 (45 CFR 46), entitled Protection of Human Subjects, and Parts 160 and 164, entitledStandards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information and the California Protection of Human Subjects in Medical Experimentation Act (Code Sections 24170 24179.5). Research conducted pre-2018 will be reviewed under 45 CFR 46, and any research implemented after January 21, 2019, will be reviewed under the new Revised Common Rule (NRCR). The delay of the NRCR transitioned the updates being called the "2018 Final Rule", which was published by DHHS on January 19, 2017, with no revisions since 1991, providing several revisions that offer clarification and reduce administrative burden. Where applicable, FDA regulations on human subjects research will be followed (CFR Title 21 Parts 50, 56, Protection of Human Subjects and Institutional Review Boards). The actions of Pepperdine University will also conform to all other applicable federal, state, and local laws and regulations, including tribal law passed by the official governing body of an American Indian or Alaska Native tribe.
c. The primary goal of the Pepperdine University IRBs is to protect the welfare and dignity of human participants. A secondary goal of the Pepperdine IRBs is to assist investigators in conducting ethical research that is in compliance with federal, state, and university regulations. Additionally, by addressing the human subjects concerns in an applicant's proposed research, the IRBs may protect investigators from engaging in potentially unethical research practices. Thus, when a faculty member, student, and/or employee of Pepperdine University wishes to conduct research involving human participants her or his research proposal must be reviewed by one of the IRBs.
d. Investigators seeking to conduct research with human participants should obtain a copy of Pepperdine University's Protection of Human Participants in Research: Policies and Procedures Manual from the IRB web site at https://community.pepperdine.edu/irb/. The Protection of Human Participants in Research: Policies and Procedures Manual is a reference manual for investigators that outlines the policies, regulations, and procedures governing research with human participants/subjects, and the requirements for submitting research proposals for review by the Pepperdine University Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). This manual describes the application and review process, as well as applicable regulatory requirements. It is important for investigators to thoroughly familiarize themselves with the contents of this manual, and complete the required educational components before submitting proposals to the appropriate IRB. Copies of all policy documents, application forms, and other human subjects' protection materials may be obtained from the human subjects' protections web site at http://community.pepperdine.edu/irb/. Additionally, contact information for the chairpersons of the Graduate and Professional Schools (GPS) and Seaver College IRBs may be obtained at the IRB website. Investigators are encouraged to contact their IRB chairperson with any questions.
e. Before initiating any research project that seeks to obtain data from human participants (including the use of archival data), investigators must obtain written approval from the appropriate Pepperdine IRB.
For more information on Human Resource Policies, please visit: https://community.pepperdine.edu/hr/policies/policymanual.htm
220.127.116.11.2. UNIVERSITY PRIVACY PRACTICES
(Effective April 14, 2003; Included 2012)
The formal notice of Pepperdine University's privacy practices as described in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and regulations promulgated thereunder, commonly known as HIPAA are found at http://www.pepperdine.edu/about/administration/provost/content/policies/hipaa_manual_5_2012.pdf
18.104.22.168.3. HIPAA POLICIES AND PROCEDURES
(Included 2012, updated 2017)
A. General Policy
Pepperdine University is committed to protecting the privacy of individual health information in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) and the regulations promulgated there under. These policies and procedures apply to protected health information created, acquired, or maintained by the designated covered components of the University after April 14, 2003. The statements in this Manual represent the University's general operating policies and procedures. For further details regarding these policies and procedures see 45 C.F.R. Parts 160 and 164.
Pepperdine University is a hybrid entity as defined in 45 C.F.R. §164.103 and includes both covered and non‐covered components. These policies and procedures apply only to the University's designated covered components, which include:
- Student Health Center;
- Athletic Training Center;
- Student Counseling;
- Pepperdine Psychology and Education Clinic;
- Pepperdine Community Counseling Center;
- Pepperdine Jerry B.H. Union Rescue Clinic; and
- Center for Human Resources, Benefits Department. Certain administrative and/or support offices may also be designated as covered components.
The designated covered components may not share protected health information with the non‐covered components of the University, unless specifically permitted by the privacy regulations. It is the responsibility of each designated covered component to assure that their employees, students, volunteers, etc. comply with these policies and procedures. A designated covered component may develop and incorporate additional policies and procedures if doing so is necessary and appropriate to comply with more stringent state laws. However, a designated covered component may not delete sections of these policies and procedures without first consulting the Privacy Official or the Security Official.
Pepperdine University's HIPAA Policies, Procedures and Forms Manual is found on the Provost's web site at http://www.pepperdine.edu/about/administration/provost/content/policies/hipaa_manual_5_2012.pdf.
22.214.171.124. ANIMAL SUBJECT RESEARCH
(Modified 2014, modified 2017, updated 2021)
Pepperdine University's animal subject research procedures and resources are available on the IACUC website.
126.96.36.199. ALLEGATIONS REGARDING RESEARCH MISCONDUCT
(Approved by UAC on March 28, 2003; modified 2012)
Guidelines for responding to allegations of scientific misconduct for research supported by or seeking support from the US Public Health Service are posted at http://www.pepperdine.edu/about/administration/provost/content/policies/misconductpolicy.pdf.
188.8.131.52. PATENTS AND COPYRIGHTS
Copyrightable materials which are developed by University personnel within the course of employment or which are developed with the use of University funds or facilities shall be the property of the University. Every invention or discovery or part thereof that results from research or other activities carried out at the University or that is developed with the aid of the University's facilities, staff, or through funds administered by the University, shall be the property of the University. As a condition of employment or enrollment and attendance, every invention or discovery shall be assigned to the University.
Pepperdine University's Policy on copyrightable materials, patents and inventions is found on the Provost's web site at http://www.pepperdine.edu/about/administration/provost/content/policies/CopyrightPatent.pdf.
4.7.3. INTERNAL RESOURCES
As resources permit, the University provides space, funds, and facilities for faculty research programs. Faculty members are encouraged to seek internal support for research through the sabbatical leave process and by applying for internal funding from the Seaver Research Council. Furthermore, faculty members are encouraged to make use of the time during the summer months (late April through mid-August) to conduct scholarly work and to engage in programs of faculty development administered by the Seaver Dean’s Office and the Office of the Vice Provost.
4.7.4. EXTERNAL FUNDING FOR RESEARCH
Faculty members are encouraged especially to seek support for research activities from funding sources external to the University. Such grants, particularly those from federal and state agencies, often contain requirements for University participation in the form of matching funds, reassignment of faculty time, etc. In applying for grants, faculty members should, in consultation with their divisional dean and the Assistant Provost for Research, take into account the time commitments required by the proposed project, and the effect that approval and funding of the project will have on the University budget. Regardless of the source of funding, University policy requires the reporting and reconciliation of all expenditures.
184.108.40.206. CORPORATE AND FOUNDATION RELATIONS
(Since 2010; modified 2012)
Corporate and Foundation Relations (CFR) assists faculty and staff from all five schools and university-wide in the pursuit of private external funding opportunities and in identifying partnership prospects with foundations and corporations. Funding partnerships include but are not limited to:
- Programmatic initiatives
- Student support through scholarships and graduate fellowships
- Faculty research
- Infrastructure enhancements to educational and research facilities
CFR staff provides assistance to applicants throughout the development and submission process. Seasonal newsletters highlight recent awards. Contact and instructional information can be found on the Corporate and Foundations Relations web site at http://community.pepperdine.edu/cfr/.
4.74.2. RESEARCH AND SPONSORED PROGRAMS
(Since 2010; modified 2012, modified 2017)
The Office of Research and Sponsored Programs (RSP) supports faculty and staff in the procurement and management of public funding for research and scholarly projects. RSP ensures comprehensive assistance throughout the grant process by offering specialized support through its pre-award and post-award staff. Prior to proposal submission, pre-award personnel work with eligible faculty and staff in areas including concept development, funding-opportunity identification, guideline review, correspondence with funding agencies, proposal writing and editing, budget preparation, and routing for University approval prior to submission. Upon receiving notification that the submission has been awarded, post-award personnel assist with agreement negotiation and acceptance, project reporting and management (both narrative and financial), and ultimately, project close-out.
RSP is located in TAC 336 and can be reached at extension 4819 or through its website at http://www.pepperdine.edu/academics/rsp/.
Faculty members shall perform all research or research related activities in accordance with federal and state law, University and School policies, and ethics codes that apply to the researcher or to the person’s research. The University has adopted policies that specifically govern faculty research, including, for example, research involving human or animal subjects and research funded by certain governmental agencies. Pepperdine faculty members and researchers are subject to the research policies, are responsible for knowing the provisions of the policies, and are responsible for ensuring that they comply with the policies and that others working with or for them, including students, comply with the policies. The complete text of the policies is available on the Pepperdine University web site.
4.8. SABBATICAL LEAVE
(Included since 1978; modified 1988; 2002; 2012, updated 2017, 2021)
The purpose of the sabbatical leave (hereafter called sabbatical) is to provide the time for the participating faculty members to remain fresh and knowledgeable about developments in their discipline. That time is typically used to hone research, creative activity, and/or teaching skills that ultimately benefit our students. These activities normally involve the pursuit of a specific project that helps the participant to become stronger in the classroom, more accomplished in his/her field, or a leader or some aspect of inquiry in the discipline. The range of projects deserving of a Sabbatical is limited only by the creative minds of the individual faculty members who apply.
The University’s investment in the sabbatical helps the recipient become a more productive contributor to the discipline. More importantly, the sabbatical strengthens the teaching and research missions of the University by providing renewed energy in the classroom as well as research findings that may be used by academics and practitioners throughout the world, or creative activities that may lead to performance or exhibition. Few investments that the University could make would provide a greater return.
2. ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS
Full-time, tenured or tenure-track faculty members are eligible for sabbatical after completing seven full years of continuous service to the University. Faculty members' first year of employment or most recent sabbatical must have occurred at least seven years previous to the year of their proposed sabbatical leave. For example, faculty members proposing sabbatical in the 2014-2015 academic year must have started employment or taken their most recent sabbatical during or before the 2007-2008 academic year. Applications are due on June 1, fourteen months before the start of the academic year during which the sabbatical is sought. In the previous example, applications would be due on June 1, 2013.
The following is considered when determining years of continuous service:
- The seven years of continuous service must be years spent as a tenured or tenure-track faculty member.
- Time spent on a previous sabbatical is counted toward a faculty member's years of continuous service.
- Non-sabbatical leaves of absence are not counted toward a faculty member's years of continuous service. They freeze—but do not reset—the count toward seven years of continuous service. Medical and Expectant Parent Leaves are exceptions; they do count toward years of continuous service.
- Release or reassigned time does not affect sabbatical eligibility or the continuous service period.
3. USE OF TIME
The sabbatical period is intended as a period of doing scholarly work, research, or creative activity that cannot be attempted during the press of normal duties at the University. The Sabbatical is not intended to provide additional time to augment one’s income or to teach at another institution, except in unusual cases specifically approved in advance. If any employment is contemplated, while the primary purpose of the Sabbatical is pursued, such work shall be included in the proposal.
4. THE ROLE OF THE FACULTY DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE
The Faculty Development Committee (hereafter called the Committee) has the dual role of (a) serving as an advocate for faculty members who are eligible for a sabbatical and (b) determining selection criteria, evaluating requests by the faculty, and making recommendations to the Seaver academic administration for sabbatical leaves and reassigned time. Because the granting of the Sabbatical is an investment in the academic health of the University, the assumption is that the sabbatical will be granted to those who are eligible and make a worthy application.
5. PROCEDURAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR THE APPLICANT
a. Proposals submitted to the Committee in June will follow a standard form. Because the Committee encourages the submission of proposals that are clear and well thought out, the proposals will consist of (a) a cover page of data, (b) a 2-5 page explanation of the proposal, and (c) attachments, including letters of support, for no more than ten total pages of the application. Recommendations for sabbatical leave will be made by the Faculty Development Committee to the Dean of Seaver College at the latest by September 1.
b. Once the Sabbatical is granted, the recipient has the responsibility to follow through with the thrust of the basic plan outlined in the Proposal. Major deviations from the plan during the sabbatical must be communicated in a one-page document to the Committee for approval. During the first semester back to regular duties, recipients will be expected to present the results of their work at a meeting open to the entire faculty.
c. The individual granted the sabbatical will return to the University and serve for at least one year. Individuals who do not do this will be expected to repay all of the costs associated with the sabbatical grant, including the salary granted during the sabbatical.
6. PROCEDURAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR THE DIVISIONAL DEAN
a. It is the responsibility of the divisional dean to make arrangements for the classroom absence of sabbatical recipients. In no case should an applicant with a worthy proposal not be granted a sabbatical because the Division fails to reapportion the teaching load effectively.
b. The divisional dean is the member of administration closest to the recipient in terms of discipline knowledge and day-to-day contact. As such, s/he has the responsibility of ensuring that the sabbatical is undertaken in a way that is productive for both the University and the recipient. This can be done by conferring with the prospective applicant before the proposal is drafted, writing a letter of support for the applicant for the sabbatical (using the template provided by this Committee), and by loosely monitoring the progress of the sabbatical during the period of the leave.
7. SABBATICAL WEB SITE
a. The Seaver Dean's Office maintains a web site to communicate information regarding the sabbatical application process at https://seaver.pepperdine.edu/about/administration/dean/faculty/sabbatical/.